Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Conflicting Hyphenation Conflicting Hyphenation Conflicting Hyphenation By Maeve Maddox I have a negative behavior pattern (for an American) of turning things upward in the OED first and not verifying whether Merriam-Webster concurs. Here and there this propensity brings about my changing a spelling thatÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfactory in U.S. utilization or hyphenating a word that M-W doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. At the point when I as of late experienced online instances of the unhyphenated words unAmerican and copayment, I counseled the two word references to check whether I had fallen antiquated. Both OED and M-W show co-installment and un-American as the main alternatives. Indeed, even the AP Stylebook permits a hyphen in un-American. Maybe online writers and shippers who don't hyphenate these words are utilizing other style guides. Or on the other hand possibly they just donÃ¢â¬â¢t care. Here are a few models that demonstrate that not every person feels that words like co-pay, co-installment, co-protection and un-American require hyphens or even that descriptive words from formal people, places or things require a capital. Copayments and Other Information (Wisconsin data site) Whats the contrast among copays and coinsurance? (Animate application FAQ) The part just pays their copayment for any extra affirmations (Blue Cross data site) Ã¢â¬Å"UnAmerican GraffitiÃ¢â¬ (scene title, NYPD Blue) Ã¢â¬Å"UnamericanÃ¢â¬ (melody title on Cletus Got Shot collection) Unamerican (segment title, Huffington Post) My email to my unAmerican Representative (feature, Daily Kos) Realizing when to hyphenate things framed with regular prefixes like co-and un-can be dubious, in any event, while counseling a word reference or stylebook. For instance, M-W hyphenates co-pay, however not coeditor. CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style) goes with coeditor, however selects co-pick. Both OED and AP give the gesture to co-manager, and all of the sources I use recognizes the spelling un-American. I end up needing to single out as per my own sentiments about the manner in which a word looks. Since I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like the appearance of coeditor and coauthor, I need to go with APÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Retain the hyphen while shaping things, descriptive words and action words that demonstrate occupation or status.Ã¢â¬ But despite the fact that AP incorporates co-creator, co-pilot and co-star in the Ã¢â¬Å"occupation-statusÃ¢â¬ class, they consign coed to their unhyphenated list. In the event that I need to compose co-ed, I need to go to M-W for defense. Proficient authors donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the choice of this sort of blending and coordinating. Distributers, then again, do. A few distributers and associations assemble their ownÃ¢â¬ house style guides,Ã¢â¬ normally dependent on one of the standard aides, however changed in certain regards. For instance, the AP Stylebook suggests utilizing the nation name Myanmar. For political reasons, a distributer may override that standard, requiring his scholars to allude to the nation by its previous name, Burma. Without a house control, essayists whose business has embraced a specific style direct will undoubtedly tail it, paying little mind to individual inclination. Independent journalists, who are their own managers, ought to embrace a guide for themselves to follow. Need to improve your English quickly a day? Get a membership and begin getting our composing tips and activities day by day! Continue learning! Peruse the Punctuation class, check our famous posts, or pick a related post below:50 Handy Expressions About HandsHow to Play HQ Words: Cheats, Tips and TricksWracking or Racking Your Brain?
Posted by Pedro Pena at 4:35 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Procedure Improvement (Logistics) - Research Paper Example All associations independent of their industry section move in the direction of turning into the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibly chain the board (SCM) pioneers. This status is accomplished through the advancement of top line pay development by means of improved customer fulfillment, sped up, and limited overheads and process durations. The pretended by coordinations greatness and transportation trying to build up a best in class flexibly chain has become recognizable nowadays.Transportation costs take up a lot of the gracefully chain and can be killed by means of Transportation Management Solutions (TMS).TMS can achieve these investment funds by process improvement. Numerous associations are equipped for redeploying or diminishing existing transportation overheads and representatives altogether via computerizing primary coordinations and transportation forms through cutting edge TMS. Incompletely, this is accomplished via mechanizing manual employments, for example, bearer determination, off ering and acknowledgment, and shipment arranging bringing about improved profitability benefits for transportation faculty.A huge number of firms can limit working expenses by solidifying transportation schedules at a system stage rather than having transportation staff at each boat level. Associations utilizing these heap control focuses organize spare a lot of in general cargo bills and overhead.Inventory the executives incorporates the procedure of successfully guaranteeing a constant development of stocks out of and into the present stock.
Posted by Pedro Pena at 8:49 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
screaming Everythings going just fine! Im registered for classes, the grad school admission process is almost done, and Im on track to graduate and enter the adult world. And yet the past three weeks have been the most stressful experience of my whole time at MIT. It turns out that theres more to this place than just doing classes. Heres the blog post where I vent. A while back when I was asking people for recommendation letters, my PI of three years made a suggestion. He wanted to nominate me for a UROP research symposium in January, so he could add that to my letter. I said of course, even though I cant stand because I absolutely love doing scientific presentations. Furthermore, it would be impossible incredibly easy to condense three years worth of research into a 10-12 minute talk. How could you tell the person who is writing your most important recommendation that you dont want to do a little presentation? I said sure. And then that January 30th symposium date hung over my head for almost two months, as I tried my hardest to ignore it. By the middle of December, I started getting interview invites from a handful of the places I applied to. Very exciting. Then I saw that a couple of the places had interview weekends scheduled for January. One was incredibly close to that January 30th date. I had assumed that these took place in like February or March, but I really had one place that wanted me there on January 9th. I guess this (predicting interview schedules) is the one time you should check the The GradCafe.01 not a big fan of college confidential part 2 so I refuse to even hyperlink there So then my priority became preparing for interviews. The symposium cast a shadow from behind me, like when youre walking in the evening and someone who walks faster starts to overtake you. I shopped for interview clothes at a department store when I was home in December. Id never owned dress pants before. Everything is expensive. During my first round of interviews, I found that the patent leather heels I bought were a terribly uncomfortable choice, but since I hadnt had time to get my pants hemmed,02 five foot tall people are simply not able to have clothes that just fit I had to power through it. All nine hours of it, from interviews to post-interview faculty dinner. Oh yeah, I also lost my credit card during this trip and immediately deactivated it and ordered a new one, only to find it in my backpack less than an hour later. Great news! My PI is one of the hosts of this years symposium! Better not embarrass him with a terrible presentation! As soon as I got off the plane in Boston, I rushed to prepare my symposium slides to a reasonable enough extent that my postdoc mentor wouldnt be disappointed with the lack of progress. Shes been doing interviews for faculty positions at all kinds of places, so the overlap of our OoO times made it difficult to meet and practice. I met with her the next day and once again got to work, this time with a slightly better idea of what the presentation should look like. It took me an embarrassing amount of time to parse the structural/chemical bio done by our collaborators that was so essential to explaining the point of my project. And I had another interview weekend around the corner to worry about. I checked the status of my pre-registration and found that one of the classes I pre-regd for was cancelled. This made me really sad at first. It was a CMS class called Designing Active Archives. It sounded really cool. For context, my experience with this field includes volunteer Ancestry.com data entry03 essentially reading handwritten documents and typing out what they say so people can then search for their ancestors records and running a Twitter account where I find reaction images and repost them04 there are some rare reaction pics out there that you just cant find on Google image search with a text description of the photo so that people can search for them. The pictures in this post come from there. The sadness at losing the opportunity to take this class faded away into anxiety once I remembered that I needed that class to fulfill an elective for my CMS degree. I had to find another CMS elective if I wanted to finish that degree by this semester. If you dont go here, you might not understand that CMS classes, especially the fun elective ones with minimal or no prereqs, are consistently overenrolled. I have a major edge05 my main plug for majoring in CMS is that you wont get kicked out of the super popular fun classes since Im a CMS major, but I still had a brief06 Im in CMS.301 (Intro to Game Design Methods) now headache over it. I went in for the next places interviews with a slightly better understanding of what the people were going to ask me and a symposium slide deck that was in shambles considering my talk was in six days. My first 30 minute interview went over by !!!25 minutes!!!, eating into 15 minutes of the next 30 minute interview, which ultimately made me late to the third interview by at least 10 minutes, partially due to the fact that I ran up eight flights of stairs to get to her office since I didnt know where the elevators were. My interviewers were all great, and my feet hurt much less, but I didnt think I made a great impression by being late to all of my interviews, including the one that happened in the afternoon after an hour-long break. For that one, I had walked back to the hotel to lie in bed and stare at the ceiling for a bit, left with enough time to make it to the next interview location, found out that it was in an active hospital, buzzed the doorbell in the left side of the hospi tal lobby to be let into the area that was clearly labelled with the name of the place on my interview schedule sheet, was let in and encountered a flustered receptionist who had no idea what I was doing buzzing into the executive suite, headed down the hall in shame, went through a metal detector and got in line with a bunch of other people, had someone passing by tell me that I didnt need to stand in that line and that I could just go around to the elevator, took the elevator to what I assumed was the correct location, found that the office listed on my interview schedule did not exist, asked someone in the closest office where I was supposed to go, was told uhh, Im not sure. Try around the corner, still couldnt find that office, asked some guy with his door open who told me it was next door, and found my interviewer, all with negative ten minutes left to spare. He was pretty cool about it but I almost just took a knee and left. Once back home, I got to work on the symposium stuff. I wrote a script and finalized the slides. I met with my postdoc over phone, over FaceTime, at her house, at a conference she was attending in Boston. I spent four entire days doing nothing but working on this presentation. I have it memorized still, but at significant cost to my mental state. My brain felt itchy. Im someone who is usually very quick to memorize things, but for some reason, this time it didnt stick. Even when I forced it to stick, I kept coming in about two minutes over time. Truly a mess. I had looked at my slides so many times that they had started to lose meaning. My itchy brain was unfolding, becoming smooth. Ive known for a while that I want to go to grad school in New York.07 despite my ethical qualms about going to schools named after sketchy billionaires i.e. basically all of the NYC biosciences grad programs I applied to four programs in NYC. I got interview invites from two, I got rejected by the other two. The first interview went well, or so I thought, but I was so exhausted by the process that I think I put off an irritated vibe that they didnt appreciate. My feet hurt. I got waitlisted. Suddenly my NYC prospects shrank from four to one. I got an email saying that the second interview program would release decisions by January 30th at 4 pm eastern time. Right in the middle of the symposium. So I had to continue practicing this presentation despite most of my mental energy being devoted to the what-if08 spoiler: the decision did in fact come right in the middle of my presentation and I got in :) of admissions gone bad. During our reg day meeting, my advisor handed me a degree progress sheet that showed I was four electives short of the CMS degree. That would mean I would have to take six classes09 hell no this semester instead of four or else abandon that degree. I recounted everything and showed the administrator my math. Im all set now, but this was anxiety-inducing in a major way. Ive been keeping up with politics recently as well. Probably the worst thing to feed my brain. I requested an absentee ballot for the primaries in my home state of Alabama. Go figure, thats kind of hard to do. Theres a form you have to fill out, you have to scan a copy of your ID, you have to print all of it and mail it somewhere with a questionable amount of postage. I received my ballot recently and found that there are a lot of judges running that I dont know anything about. Ive been questioning whether I should even have a say in the Jefferson County circuit court judge races, considering Im choosing judges who will oversee courts in a place that I visit maybe twice a year. Nonetheless, I read up on the candidates and chose the ones I thought seemed most appropriate. Next came the weird business of figuring out how many stamps to put on the return envelope, which simply says additional postage required. Turns out that theres truly no way of knowing unless I physically go to a pos t office. But Im not going to let that stop me. (And neither should you! If youre a citizen and 18 or older go vote! Please!) do it!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1 Ive got interviews happening in California from Thursday through Tuesday of next week. Its the first week of classes, so this is terrible timing, as a lot of classes require you to be at the first session and will kick you out of the class if you dont show up. Therefore, Ive made the prudent(?) decision to miss the optional activities happening on Thursday in order to make it to my two classes that day. I will be leaving class and heading directly to the airport. I need to pack. I will arrive at SFO at 9:30 pm and dive right into interviews at 8 am the next morning. My dress pants are still too long. I have no time to deal with that. As I write this, its Tuesday night, and Ive been keeping up with the Iowa caucuses. And by keeping up with I mean making sustained throat noises at my laptop screen as the headlines roll out and the numbers dont. New Hampshire is happening soon.10 and Im kind of sad that I cant take a daytrip to NH to see the Strokes perform at the Bernie concert because I will be in California AHHHHHHHHHHHH In hurried, gesticulating, half-baked conclusion, this kind of stuff never ends. You make it through one obstacle just to find the next. You should still take some time to be proud of yourself for clearing each hurdle. You should also recognize that you dont need to clear every hurdle. Sometimes you dont have any control over whether or not you can clear the hurdle. Furthermore, to quote Kierkegaard11 my 14 year old sister asked for Camuss The Stranger for Christmas and you bet I bought it for her in a highly undergrad who doesnt really understand the context or meanings of philosophers quotes way, anxiety is the dizziness of freedom. No, I will not elaborate on that. Here are some links to YouTube videos that Ive been watching to calm down (they may also work for the kind of stress that comes with waiting for your damn admissions decisions): seahorse birth a rat painting a pretty picture octopus eggs hatching my favorite vocalist of his era, Eric Burdon, performing Spill the Wine with War in 1970 Enjoy! Post Tagged #grad school #IAP #stress not a big fan of college confidential part 2 so I refuse to even hyperlink there back to text ? five foot tall people are simply not able to have clothes that just fit back to text ? essentially reading handwritten documents and typing out what they say so people can then search for their ancestors' records back to text ? there are some rare reaction pics out there that you just can't find on Google image search back to text ? my main plug for majoring in CMS is that you won't get kicked out of the super popular fun classes back to text ? I'm in CMS.301 (Intro to Game Design Methods) now back to text ? despite my ethical qualms about going to schools named after sketchy billionaires i.e. basically all of the NYC biosciences grad programs back to text ? spoiler: the decision did in fact come right in the middle of my presentation and I got in :) back to text ? hell no back to text ? and I'm kind of sad that I can't take a daytrip to NH to see the Strokes perform at the Bernie concert because I will be in California back to text ? my 14 year old sister asked for Camus's The Stranger for Christmas and you bet I bought it for her back to text ?
Posted by Pedro Pena at 5:46 AM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1465 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Supreme Court Cases Essay Did you like this example? When the supreme court makes a decision on a controversial court case, a long line of ramifications are going to follow no matter what political landscape an individual is in. In the case of Salinas v. Texas it can be shown just how exactly a supreme court case can affect other future court cases and potentially day-to-day interaction with law enforcement. Even though the law may be written a certain way, it could be practically applied in a manner that might undermine what the law is supposed to stand for in the first place. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In this particular case, it all started when a homicide takes place where two brothers were shot and only six shotgun shells are left at the scene of the crime. Among the possible suspects is a young man named, Genovevo Salinas, who was confirmed to be attending a party that was at same house the night before the shooting. Consequently, the police asked Salinas to come with them to the police station where he answers multiple questions voluntarily for about an hour. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology has a very good article detailing the whole ordeal. Among my findings, it was clear that the situation gets tense for Salinas when he is asked if he saw anyone suspicious at the party, because he shuffles his feet, bites his bottom lip, clenches his hands in his lap, and begins to tighten up. Next he answers some more questions and leaves the station without answering that one question, and soon after he is arrested for murder. A ballistics analysis later matched Salinas gun with the casing at the scene, along with a with a witness who states that Salinas admitted to the murders. Consequently, Salinas was charged with murder but could not be located until 15 years later. The first trial ended in a mistrial, but the second trial is when the prosecution attempts to introduce evidence of Salinas silence about the gun casings and that he suspicious behavior while being silent. Salinas objected, arguing that he could invoke his Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination whether he was in custody or not. The evidence was admitted and Salinas was sentenced to 20 years in prison with a 5,000 dollar fine. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Texas Supreme Court Cases Research" essay for you Create order Ã Taking in account that Genovevo is a young immigrant who was living in an impoverished New York City, he was unlikely to know that he had the right to not incriminate himself by openly saying that he was exercising his fifth amendment right. While the Supreme Court recognizes this right exists and is constitutional in nature, an ongoing discussion over the precise scope and requirement for the application of this law when looking for evidence of guilt still drives much controversy to this day. Courts have addressed this issue by considering when, if at all, the Fifth Amendment protects citizens from either the Self-Incrimination Clause or the Due Process Clause when tied to a defendants silence. As a result, the court evaluated the constitutionality of adverse inferences of guilt from the lack of answering questions across three phases of the arrest process: (1) silence occurring before arrest during a voluntary interview with police officers; (2) silence occuring after arrest bu t before receipt of Miranda warnings; and (3) silence occuring after both arrest and receipt of Miranda warnings.Ã With this evaluation, their is no doubt that this is something the average joe in America is most likely not aware of without a police officer informing them about their right to remain silent and what you say is admissible in court. Ã In Salinas v. Texas the court announced a procedural requirement that criminal suspects must first expressly invoke their right to remain silent in order to later on object any adverse inference at trial on Fifth Amendment grounds. Salinas, who was not given his miranda rights and sat silent when asked one question and by not even saying something on the line of I dont want to answer that,Ã he still had his silence used against him. The court has already stated in previous cases that using a suspects silence after invoking the individuals miranda rights is unconstitutional. It can be implied that by simpleing using some magical words, a criminal suspects silence cannot be usedÃ against them in the court as evidence of guilt and I believe this can be negative for America in the long run. In the Faulkner Law Review, titled, Speak Or Be Sentenced, The High Price Of Pre-Arrest Silence, the author states that state courts have more of a structured rule for them to follow in pre- arrest than what is in place before. The author, Andrew Odom concludes, As the Fifth Amendment continues to be narrowed, there will be an increasing role in state constitutional and evidentiary provisions to flesh out the gaps in Fifth Amendment protection that are left by the Supreme Court. As seen in the Salinas case, there is still overlap on what is considered to be protected by the Fifth Amendment and what is not which can be seen between the Federal and State Courts. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Having our rights narrowed by the Supreme Court in a way that can only be interpreted by the particular state, makes me question how free citizens across America actually are. By inclining citizens to verbally express their right would not be the first time a law has been given stricter guidelines, and this just gives less control to the people when having a simple conversation with the police. I can see why the court decided to send the evidence behind the silence in Salinas particular case with all of his other signs with looking guilty. However, that just leaves the door open in the future for this case to be used in a manner that might not exactly be appropriate. When discussing the Fourteenth Amendment, the Georgia Law Review, has a very unique perspective. Evelyn French states, beyond the constitutional protections the selective silence doctrine would also help curb the continuing public policy concerns surrounding coerced statements and confessions . The author displays one of the safeguards of having the Fifth Amendment for citizens in an interrogation. Having said that, with the Salinas case ruling, Americans can see how when in a non-custodial setting, it is not implied that we are protected by silence when asked a question. This issue on when silence can be used as evidence of guilt is not something that all Supreme Court Justices can agree upon. Three of the justices believe that analysis of guilt should focus on words, deeds and circumstances of the questioning. It is unfortunate that not citizens do not have as much autonomy as they would when on trial, because I believe the law should be treated the same whether a citizen is on trial or not. If this was the case, then there would not be so many grey areas on prosecuting guilty people. Unfortunately in Salinas case he was an example of how the law cannot be dependable. The Mercer Law Review, discusses the plurality between the judges decisions and how the Supreme Court came to their choice. On page 10, the author states, [But popular misconceptions notwithstanding, the Fifth Amendment guarantees that no one may be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; it does not establish an unqualified right to remain silent. A witness'[s] constitutional right to refuse to answer questions depends on his reasons for doing so, and courts need to know those reasons to evaluate the merits of a Fifth Amendment claim. This was a quote from Supreme Court Justice Alito who decided that the silence could be used as evidence against Salinas. Having the knowledge that your silence is not protected by the Fifth Amendment, can give more power the citizens to not let themselves look guilty when they might not be. In Salinas case, there was only one way to not get prosecuted, and that was by assuming his innocence when he did not answer that one question. Controversial cases like this displays the complexity of what can be considered as evidence and what cannot. I do not doubt that future court cases will point to Salinas v. Texas when dealing with other court cases, and I could see that infringing on other peoples right to not incriminate themselves. Since citizens know that they have to answer questions from law enforcement now, they might say something that the cop wants to hear when it could be false without the person being aware of that. Then the officer could use the suspects words against them and find a way to build a case when it might inappropriate to do so. With the Supreme Court tightening the laws behind the Fifth Amendment, Americans are at more of disadvantage when dealing with Law Enforcement than ever before.
Posted by Pedro Pena at 4:42 PM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Universities: Medieval and Modern nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Universities have existed since the Twelfth Century AD and have been evolving ever since. There have been many changes however many things have remained unchanged throughout the years. The student and teacher roles have evolved as well as the general purpose of going to a university. Overall the academic aspects have changed more than the personal aspects of college. In 1200, the King of France issued a statement (118)* regarding Royal Privileges granted to the University of Paris. In order to protect the students, the King made a law that if any citizen sees harm being done to a student of the university he must testify truthfully to this. This law shows how importantÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some students concentrate more on parties than their studies. Another letter (132) written in the Thirteenth Century is from a father to a son admonishing him about his laziness. The father states that his son, quot;prefers license to restraint and play to workquot;. A more serious issue that has arisen throughout the history of universities is that of rioting. A recount of the riot at Oxford (130)in the 13th century is reminiscent of a riot that occured at Kent State in the 1960s. These similarities merely show that human nature has not changed as much as some may think. Some major changes have taken place in society over time, regarding religion especially, which have affected the universities. As time goes on people as a whole have become more tolerant. Now society is more accepting of differences. In 1215 Robert Courcon issued the statutes for the University of Paris that stated, quot;The books of Aristotle on Metaphysics or Natural Philosophy, or the abridgments of these works, are not to be read, nor the writings of Master David of Dinant, the heretic Amauri, or the Spaniard Mauricius.quot; (119) These could not be read either because the authors were considered heretics by the church or because they expressed beliefs that did not coincide with the churchs beliefs. Today students study all kinds of writings not discriminating against those which contain beliefs that differ from their own. In fact these studies are encouraged in order to broadenShow MoreRelatedThe Black Death And The Transformation Of The West Essay973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof the West (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997) Ã¢â¬Å"The work of a mature, indeed brilliant, scholarÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ are a few words from Thomas Kuehn, author of Law, Family, and Women, describing David HerlihyÃ¢â¬â¢s profession on his work of the Black Death. David Herlihy was a remarkable medievalist who questioned the inference of the Black Death, the Yersinia Pestis or the bubonic plague. Herlihy has written several other books about his work, one well-known book is Medieval Households (1985). Herlihy graduatedRead MoreFeudal Europe Essay1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa lecture for History and Social Change at the University of Abertay Dundee, W Mcneish describes history as being a Ã¢â¬Å"contested terrain with the views of the historian giving their perception of eventsÃ¢â¬ . 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The tremendous impact of theRead More The Rise Of Christianity Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe from about AD 400Ã¢â¬â1400, roughly the period between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance. Medieval philosophers are the historical successors of the philosophers of antiquity, but they are in fact only tenuously connected with them. Until about 1125, medieval thinkers had access to only a few texts of ancient Greek philosophy (most importantly a portion of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s logic). This limitation accounts for the special attention medieval philosophersRead MoreHow Truth Was Defined By Medieval Europeans1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEric Green Urban British Literature 1st 3 December 2015 How Truth Was Defined By Medieval Europeans In life majority of people believe telling the truth is the correct way of living. 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Posted by Pedro Pena at 11:35 PM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Questions: 1 What is an "ecosystem" approach to fisheries management and where does aquaculture fit in?2 "The only way to satisfy future demands for fish and shellfish will be through increasing aquaculture production". Discuss.3 Describe the recent advances and constraints of farming a named species. What are the future production prospects for this species?4.Lack of management, sparse biological data and low conservation priority are the biggest impairments to elasmobranch conservation. Discuss this statement, supporting your arguments with examples.5 Describe the principles of MSE full-feedback simulation, and explain what kind of insights can be derived from it, if necessary illustrated by (madeup)examples.6 .we need to stop discards, because throwing away food in a hungry world destroys our image and undermines data collection. Therefore I propose to land all catches and count them against quotas from M. Damanaki, EuropeanCommissioner for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, presentation to the European Parliament. Discuss the issues relating to discarding and whether you think that the proposed discard ban under the Common Fisheries Reform (2012) is likely tobe effective. Answers: 1. Aquaculture is the one of the sectors for commercial production of fishes contributing to more than half of the fishes produced all over the world through different ways supplying fish resources to a large bulk of global population. Maintaining sustainability in aquaculture refers to the production of fishes without harming the ecosystem and its various components in such a way that the ecological balance between different aquatic organisms is not interrupted. The criteria that should be considered in order to prepare a sustainable aquaculture system are to set up a proper objective and motive for the maintenance of sustainability during the development of the aquaculture and to ensure that important precautionary approaches are taken for the proper development of aquaculture sectors (Bush et al. 2013). Others criteria that should also be given be foremost priority are proper and correct amount of feeds requirement as more requirement increases the nutrient load and less results i n inadequate food supply. Predator and prey interactions between the various fishes and the aquatic organisms also should be properly judged. Proper monitoring should be done to avoid the vulnerable habitats and high risk areas as both the aquaculture and the environment may face loss in terms of resource management. Pollution should be controlled. Proper management should be done between the fisheries and aquaculture. Care should be provided in order to achieve high level of welfare in the aquaculture businesses. Proper policy by the authorities should be implemented without the presence of any loopholes so that discrepancies in terms of excess resource use and destruction of the ecosystem can be prevented (Lazard et al 2014). 2. An ecosystem approach to resource management in fisheries can be described as those approaches which would govern then proper production of fish resources to the present generation keeping in mind the objective that would prevent the jeopardizing of options of achieving this resource by the future generations so that they can also enjoy the benefit from a variety of ranges of goods and services obtained from the aquatic resources. This can be very well understood by an example. Fisheries without an ecosystem approach have resulted in reducing the abundance and spawning potential of the target fishes due to unplanned overfishing. Parameters like growth, maturation and many others are also found to have been affected (Jennings et al. 2014). Exploitation of the resources by altering the age, size, sex ratio, genetics and species composition of the target resources had a serious impact on the ecological stability. Poor management and lack of sustainability planning resulted in overfis hing breaking the stability of the ecosystem hampering the resources. An ecosystem approach of resource management in aquaculture includes a planned utilisation of varieties of different fishes, clams, crabs, prawns, mussels and others in a ecosystem so that a proper stable ecosystem is present in the environment with properly maintained food webs and food chains so that both the present and the future generations can enjoy the fish resources without harming the carrying capacity of the environment and harming the ecological balance by over production and exploitation of the resources. An example can be provided to describe the issues. A huge impact was found on the food web of the species of the particular region. Commercial extraction of a target species resulted in crashing down of the food cycle hampering the natural ecological balance of the particular biome (Laugen et al. 2014). Various other impacts were also recognized from this practice such as the lack of proper interactions between the different fishery resources and the environment, no prop er planning of maintaining the sustainability while various fishery resources are utilized, poor management techniques and unplanned scientific approach resulting in destruction of the carrying capacity of a particular biome. 3. Global climate change has been the leading concern for a large number of environmentalists in all areas of researches as it had propounding impacts on every organisms present on the earth and aquaculture has not been an exception from it. There is a rise of temperature for about 4 degree Celsius from the preindustrial era and such rise of temperature has affected the distribution of fishes in every water bodies on earth and has also affected the productivity of the fishes. Maintaining sustainability has become difficult and has therefore affected the communities whose living depends upon aquaculture. Rise of sea level due to global warming has affected the coastal fishing habitats with the change of rainfall pattern affecting the inland aquaculture systems (Bell et al 2013). Rising acidity in the oceans affected the production of shrimps, oysters, and corals as their shell formation gets affected due to disruption in calcification processes and loweing of Ph. Zooplanktons forming the base of marine food chain gets affected as they also possess calcite cells. Clown fishes suffer from behavioural disorders as they lose their hearing ability and judging ability to flee from predators and ornamental pisciculture also gets affected (Merino et al. 2012). Rising levels of sea water often results in floods and along the Mekong river the tonnes of bhasha fish production also gets affected due to the saltwater intrusion resulting from rising sea level and dams. 4. There are a number of differences between the lampreys and hagfishes. Lampreys dwell in both fresh and marine water and can live as both parasite and nonparasite. It may grow up to 1 metre. Hagfish is only marine and lives only as parasite. However like lampreys it also grows up to 1 metre. Lampreys body is less slimy and is stout. It has a mouth which is terminal and pair of eyes are functional. However hagfish has feeble body the skin is much slimy. The eyes are degenerative and the position of the mouth is terminal (Nelson, Grande and Wilson 2016). Lampreys teeth are larger and the tongue is not very well developed. It has a well developed brain and sexes are separate. However hagfish has well developed tongue, smaller teeth, less developed brain and the sexes are not separate that is they are hermaphrodite. Lamprey has 20 cranial nerves and also possesses gill slits which are 14 in number. Hagfishes show 16 cranial nerves and 2 gill slits. The lamprey possesses salivary glands where they secrete anticoagulant to remove the skin and flesh of their prey and suck blood. The hagfishes mainly are scavengers and eat dead fishes and do not possess any salivary glands (Hardisty 2013). The development of lamprey is indirect that is their lifecycle consists of stages of development from larva. The hagfishes develop directly without going through the larva stage. 5. Discarding in fishing can be defined as the process that is used to release those species which are caught during the fishing practices which are unintentional and are therefore discarded in the water itself. Often this discard might contain other important commercial species beside the target species that results in additional benefit to the fisher man. The by catches which are not important are discarded back mainly due to the presence of restricted quota and is influenced by the choice of gear or due to fishermans behaviour (Bellman and Heery 2013). Quantification of discarded is a highly difficult tasks and results always seem to vary. Assessment is done by the observer present at the site and time of the discards and has to take certain assumptions in mind for correct calculation. A linear relationship between the total landings and the discards has to be primarily assumed. From the discard rates that is studied from the the total landings of the fisheries, total quantity of the discards is then calculated. Under many circumstances it is found that, discard rates of many countries are considered negligible such as in artisanal and subsistence fisheries whereas in measuring discards during tuna fishing requires data from international tuna management. However, quantification purposes require more development especially including physical accounting and valuation of the ecological impacts in a broader spectrum. Equal probability and probability proportional are also conducted t quantify fishes discards. Discards can be reduced by technical, administrative as well as economic means. Technical means comprises of improving the selectivity of fishes and taking out ways to reduce non-target species or make it profitable process to keep them. Devices and gear modification can help. Administrative measure contains limiting the number of vehicle to inhibit huge discards and to limit the timings and seasons for fishing so that discard amount can be restricted. Regulatory quotas also prevent excessive discarding by limiting the amount of fishes to be caught and others (Catchpole et al. 2014). Economic measures would include taxes, subsidies and quotas to restrict excessive discards because application of penalty makes fisherman concerned and careful 6. The one on the left is the Beverton-Holt-Model and the other on the right is the Von Bertalanfy model. The graph on the left has spawning potential on x axis and number of recruits on y axis. The graph on the right has time(years) as x axis and length (cm)as y axis The graph o the left hand size give information that Recruitment is constant but it can never be specified. When there is no stock there is no recruitment (Bohner and Streipert 2016). Recruitment and selection are knife edge. This graph shows an exploited phase that portrays scramble competition. The fishing and natural mortality are considered to be a constant phenomena from the time they enter into the exploiters phase. A complete mixing occurs that lead to scramble competition for a particular resource. The graph on the right hand size shows that the length of a fish increases with time and after a certain time the rate of growth declines with increase in size (Lin et al. 2012). References: Bell, J.D., Ganachaud, A., Gehrke, P.C., Griffiths, S.P., Hobday, A.J., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Johnson, J.E., Le Borgne, R., Lehodey, P., Lough, J.M. and Matear, R.J., 2013. Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change.Nature Climate Change,3(6), pp.591-599. Bellman, M.A. and Heery, E., 2013. Discarding and fishing mortality trends in the US west coast groundfish demersal trawl fishery.Fisheries Research,147, pp.115-126. Bohner, M. and Streipert, S., 2016. Optimal Harvesting Policy For The BevertonHolt Model.Mathematical biosciences and engineering: MBE,13(4), p.673. Bush, S.R., Belton, B., Hall, D., Vandergeest, P., Murray, F.J., Ponte, S., Oosterveer, P., Islam, M.S., Mol, A.P., Hatanaka, M. and Kruijssen, F., 2013. Certify sustainable aquaculture?.Science,341(6150), pp.1067-1068. Catchpole, T.L., Feekings, J.P., Madsen, N., Palialexis, A., Vassilopoulou, V., Valeiras, J., Garcia, T., Nikolic, N. and Rochet, M.J., 2014. Using inferred drivers of discarding behaviour to evaluate discard mitigation measures.ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil,71(5), pp.1277-1285. Hardisty, M.W., 2013.Biology of the Cyclostomes. Springer. Jennings, S., Smith, A.D., Fulton, E.A. and Smith, D.C., 2014. The ecosystem approach to fisheries: management at the dynamic interface between biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1322(1), pp.48-60. Laugen, A.T., Engelhard, G.H., Whitlock, R., Arlinghaus, R., Dankel, D.J., Dunlop, E.S., Eikeset, A.M., Enberg, K., Jrgensen, C., Matsumura, S. and Nussl, S., 2014. Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.Fish and Fisheries,15(1), pp.65-96. Lazard, J., Rey-Valette, H., Aubin, J., Math, S., Chia, E., Caruso, D., Mikolasek, O., Blancheton, J.P., Legendre, M., Ren, F. and Levang, P., 2014. Assessing aquaculture sustainability: a comparative methodology.International Journal of Sustainable Development World Ecology,21(6), pp.503-511. Lin, Y.J., Su, N.J., Jessop, B.M., Chiang, W.C. and Sun, C.L., 2012. Errors in coefficient or expected value? Effects of different methods on simulated values for a linear model and the nonlinear von Bertalanffy growth model.J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan,39(1), pp.23-34. Merino, G., Barange, M., Blanchard, J.L., Harle, J., Holmes, R., Allen, I., Allison, E.H., Badjeck, M.C., Dulvy, N.K., Holt, J. and Jennings, S., 2012. Can marine fisheries and aquaculture meet fish demand from a growing human population in a changing climate?.Global Environmental Change,22(4), pp.795-806. Nelson, J.S., Grande, T.C. and Wilson, M.V., 2016.Fishes of the World. John Wiley Sons.
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